Scientific Papers

Below is just a sample of some of the scientific papers that Dolphinaria-Free Europe members use to better understand the welfare implications and management issues of keeping cetaceans in captivity.

ANDERSEN, S. H. 1973. Treatment of water in dolphinaria. Aquatic Mammals, 1, 1-18.

ANON 2003. Altrenogest. VETERINARY DRUG HANDBOOK-Client information edition.

ANONYMOUS 1985. Dolphins and whales in captivity. Canberra: Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare, Australian Government.

ASPER, E. D. & CORNELL, L. H. 1977. Live capture statistics for the killer whale (Orcinus orca) 1961-1976 in California, Washington and British Columbia. Aquatic Mammals, 5, 21-26.

ASPER, E. D., DUFFIELD, D. A., DIMEO-EDIGER, N. & SHELL, D. 1990. Marine mammals in zoos, aquaria and marine zoological parks in North America: 1990 census report. International Zoo Yearbook, 29, 179-187.

BALCOMB, K. C., CLARIDGE, D. E., NORMAN, S. A., GARRETT, H. E. & ELLIFRIT, D. K. 1995. An annotated bibliography of cetacean releases. Friday Harbour: Centre for Whale Research, San Juan Island, Washington State, USA.

BENIRSCHKE, K. & CORNELL, L. H. 1987. The placenta of the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Marine Mammal Science, 3, 82-86.

BIGG, M. 1982. An assessment of killer whale (Orcinus orca) stocks off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, 32, 655-666.

BONAR, C. J., BOEDE, E. O., HARTMANN, M. G., LOWENSTEIN-WHALEY, J., MUJICA-JORQUERA, E., PARISH, S. V., PARISH, J. V., GARNER, M. M. & STADLER, C. K. 2007. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 38, 177-191.

BOSSART, G. D., CRAY, C., SOLORZANO, J. L., DECKER, S. J., CORNELL, L. H. & ALTMANN, N. H. 1996. Cutaneous pappilomaviral-like papillomatosis in a killer whale (Orcinus orca). Marine Mammal Science, 12, 274-281.

BROWN, D. H., CALDWELL, D. K. & CALDWELL, M. C. 1966. Observations on the behavior of wild and captive false killer whales, with notes on associated behavior of other genera of captive delphinids. Contributions in Science, 95, 1-32.

BUCK, C., PAULINO, G. P., MEDINA, D. J., HSIUNG, G. D., CAMPBELL, T. W. & WALSH, M. T. 1993. Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from a killer whale. Clinicial and diagnostic virology, 1, 109-112.

CIPRESTE, C. F., DE AZEVEDO, C. S. & YOUNG, R. J. 2010. How to develop a zoo-based environmental enrichment program: Incorporating environmental enrichment into exhibits. In: KLEIMAN, D. A., THOMPSON, K. V. & KIRK BAER, C. (eds.) Wild Mammals in Captivity.  Principles and techniques for zoo management.  Chicago: The University of Chicago.

CLARK, S. T. & ODELL, D. K. 1999. Allometric relationships and sexual dimorphism in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Mammalogy, 80, 777-785.

CLARK, S. T. & ODELL, D. K. 1999. Nursing parameters in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology, 18, 373-384.

CLARK, S. T., ODELL, D. K. & LACINAK, C. T. 2000. Aspects of growth in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Marine Mammal Science, 16, 110-123.

CORNELL, L. H. 1983. Hematology and clinical chemistry values in the killer whale, Orcinus orca L. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 19, 259-264.

COUQUIAUD, L. 2005. Special Issue: Survey of cetaceans in captivity. Aquatic Mammals, 31, 277-385.

DEMASTER, D. P. 1988. Surviorship patterns in three species of captive cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science, 4, 297-311.

DUFFIELD, D. A., ODELL, D. K., MCBAIN, J. F. & ANDREWS, B. 1995. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology, 14, 417-430.

EO, K.-Y. & KWON, O.-D. 2011. Two case of bacterial pneumonia in bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii) as the Seoul Zoo, Korea. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 31, 1-3.

FLANIGAN, W. F. 1975. More nocturnal observations of captive, small cetaceans.  I.  The killer whale, Orcinus orca. Sleep Research, 4, 139.

FOTHERGILL, M. & JOGESSAR, V. B. 1986. Haematological changes in two Lagenorhyncus obsurus treated wtih Ketoconazole. Aquatic Mammals, 12, 87-91.

GALES, N. & WAPLES, K. 1993. The rehabiliation and release of bottlenose dolphins from Atlantis Marine Park, Western Australia. Aquatic Mammals, 19, 49-59.

GERACI, J. R., HICKS, B. D. & ST. AUBIN, D. J. 1979. Dolphin Pox: A skin disease of cetaceans. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 43, 399-404.

GRAHAM, M. S. & DOW, P. R. 2005. Dental care for a captive killer whale, Orcinus orca. Zoo Biology, 9, 325-330.

GRAHMAN, M. A. & NOONAN, M. 2010. Call types and acoustic features associated with aggressive chase in the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals, 36, 9-18.

GREENWOOD, A. G., HARRISON, R. J. & WHITTING, H. W. 1974. Functional and pathological aspects of the skin of marine mammals. In: HARRISON, R. J. (ed.) Functional anatomy of marine mammals. London: Academic Press.

GREENWOOD, A. G. & TAYLOR, D. C. 1978. Clostridial myositis in marine mammals. The Veterinary Record 103, 54-55.

GREENWOOD, A. G. & TAYLOR, D. C. 1985. Captive killer whales in Europe. Aquatic Mammals, 1, 10-12.

IUCN 1998. Guidelines for re-introductions. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN / SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group.

JENKINS, L. 2003. Stopping the use, sale and trade of whales and dolphins in Canada.  How protection is consistent with WTO obligations. Toronto, Ontario: ZooCheck Canada.

JETT, J. S. & VENTRE, J. M. 2012. Orca (Orcinus orca) captivity and vulnerability to mosquito-transmitted viruses. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, 5, 9-16.

JIANG, Y., LÜCK, M. & PARSONS, E. C. M. 2007. Public awareness, education, and marine mammals in captivity Tourism Review International, 11, 237-249.

JULE, K., LEAVER, L. A. & LEA, S. E. G. 2008. The effects of captive experience on reintroduction survival in carnivores: A review and analysis. Biological Conservation, 141, 355-363.

KASTELEIN, R. A., KERSHAW, J., BERGHOUT, E. & WIEPKEMA, P. R. 2003. Food consumption and suckling in killer whales Orcinus orca at Marineland Antibes. International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 204-218.

KASTELEIN, R. A. & VAUGHAN, N. 1989. Food consumption, body measurements and weight changes of a female killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals, 15.

KASTELEIN, R. A., WALTON, S., ODELL, D., NIEUWSTRATEN, S. H. & WIEPKEMA, P. R. 2000. Food consumption of a captive killer whale (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals, 26, 127-131.

KASTING, N. W., ADDERLEY, S. A. L., SAFFORD, T. & HEWLETT, K. G. 1989. Thermoregulation in Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and Killer (Orcinus orca) Whales. Physiological Zoology, 62, 687-701.

KATSUMATA, E., JAROENPORN, S., KATSUMATA, H., KONNO, S., MAEDA, Y., WATANABE, G. & TAYA, K. 2006. Body Temperature and Circulating Progesterone Levels before and after Parturition in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Reproduction and Development, 52, 65-71.

KRITZLER, H. 1952. Observations on the pilot whale in captivity. Journal of Mammalogy, 33, 321-334.

KULPA-EDDY, J. A., TAYLOR, S. & ADAMS, K. A. 2005. USDA Perspective on environmental enrichment for animals. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal, 46, 83-94.

LUNDIN, L. 2010. The welfare of bottlenose dolphins and killer whales in captivity. Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Ethology and Animal Welfare programme.

LYAMIN, O. I., MANGER, P. R., RIDGEWAY, S. H., MUKHAMETOV, L. M. & SIEGEL, J. M. 2008. Cetacean sleep: An unusual form of mammalian sleep. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32.

LYAMIN, O. I., MUKHAMETOV, L. M., SIEGEL, M. J., NAZARENKO, E. A., POLYAKOVA, I. G. & SHPAK, O. K. 2022. Unihemispheric slow wave sleep and the state of the eyes in a white whale. Behavioural Brain Research, 129, 125-129.

LYAMIN, O. I., SHPAK, O. V. & SIEGEL, J. M. 2003. Ontogenesis of rest behavior in killer whales. Sleep, 26, 116.

MARINO, L. 2011. Dolphin research: Arguing against captivity. Science. AAAS.

MARINO, L. & FROHOFF, T. G. 2011. Towards a new paradigm of non-captive research on cetacean cognition. PLoS ONE, 6, e24121.

MARINO, L. & LILIENFELD, S. O. 1998. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: Flawed data, flawed conclusions. Anthrozoös, 11, 194-200.

MARINO, L. & LILIENFELD, S. O. 2007. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: More flawed data and more flawed conclusions. Anthrozoös, 20, 239-249.

MARINO, L., LILIENFELD, S. O., MALAMUD, R., NOBIS, N. & BROGLIO, R. 2010. Do zoos and aquariums promote attitude changes in visitors?  A critical evaluation of the American Zoo and Aquarium study. Society and Animals, 18, 126-138.

MASON, G. J. 2010. Species differences in responses to captivity: stress, welfare and the comparative method. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 713-721.

MASON, G. J., CLUBB, R., LATHAM, N. & VICKERY, S. S. 2007. Why and how should we use environmental enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 163-188.

MATHEWS, F., ORROS, M., MCLAREN, G., GELLING, M. & FOSTER, R. 2005. Keeping fit on the ark: assessing the suitability of captive-bred animals for release. Biological Conservation, 121, 569-577.

MAZET, J. A. K., HUNT, T. D. & ZICCARDI, M. H. 2004. Assessment of the risk of zoonotic disease transmission to marine mammal workers and the public: Survey of occupational risks. United States Marine Mammal Commission.

MCBRIDE, A. F. & KRITZLER, H. 1951. Observations on pregnancy, parturition, and postnatal behaior in the bottlenose dolphin. Journal of Mammalogy, 32, 251-266.

MCCORMICK-RAY, G. M. 1993. Aquarium science: The substance behind an image. Zoo Biology, 12, 413-424.

MOONEY, J. 1998. Captive Cetaceans: A handbook for campaigners. In: STROUD, C., WILLIAMS, V. & CLARKE, F. (eds.). Bath, UK: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.

MOORE, M., EARLY, G., TOUHEY, K., BARCO, S., GULLAND, F. & WELLS, R. S. 2007. Rehabilitation and release of marine mammals in the United States: Risks and benefits. Marine Mammal Science, 23, 731-750.

MORGAN, K. N. & TROMBORG, C. T. 2007. Sources of stress in captivity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 262-302.

MOTTA, M. R. A. & SILVA, C. P. N. 2005. Rescue, handling and release of a melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra, stranded in Ceará, NE Brazil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 4, 187-190.

NISHIWAKI, M. & TOBAYAMA, T. 1982. Morphological study on the hybrid between Tursiops and Pseudorca. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, Tokyo, 34, 109-121.

PACE, D. S., TRIOSSI, F., TERRANOVA, M. L. & RENZI, P. 1994. Every breath you take: the ontogeny of respiratory behaviour in two captivity-born bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Bollettino di Zoologia.

PACE, D. S., TRIOSSI, F., TERRANOVA, M. L. & RENZI, P. 1994. Nutritional and spatial mother-calf interactions in two captivity born bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Bottettino di Zoologia.

REEVES, R. R., DEMASTER, D. P., HILL, C. L. & LEATHERWOOD, S. 1994. Survivorship of odontocete cetaceans at Ocean Park, Hong Kong, 1974-1994. Asian Maine Biology, 11, 107-124.

REHTANZ, M., GHIM, S.-J., MCFEE, W., DOESCHER, B., LACAVE, G., FAIR, P. A., REIF, J. S., BOSSART, G. D. & JENSON, A. B. 2010. Papillomavirus antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46, 136-145.

RIDGEWAY, S. H. & PATTON, G. S. 1971. Dolphin thyroid: Some anatomical and physiological findings. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 71, 129-141.

RIDGWAY, S. H. 1979. Reported causes of death of captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15, 99-104.

ROBECK, T. R. & DALTON, L. M. 2002. Saksenaea vasiformis and Apophysomyces elegans Zygomycotic infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a killer whale (Orcinus orca) and Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 33, 356-366.

ROBECK, T. R., SCHNEYER, A. L., MCBAIN, J. F., DALTON, L. M., WALSH, M. T., CZEKALA, N. M. & KRAEMER, D. C. 1993. Analysis of urinary immunoreactive steroid metabolites and gonadotropins for characterization of the estrous cycle, breeding period, and seasonal estrous activity of the captive killer whale (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology, 12, 173-187.

ROBECK, T. R., STEINMAN, K. J., GEARHART, S., REIDARSON, T. R., MCBAIN, J. F. & MONFORT, S. L. 2004. Reproductive physiology and development of artificial insemination technology in killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biology of Reproduction, 71, 650-660.

ROSE, N. A. 1999. Marine mammal welfare: An exploration of the world of marine mammals. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2, 255-257.

ROSE, N. A. 2011. Killer Controversy:  Why orcas should no longer be kept in captivity. Humane Society International and The Humane Society of the United States, Washington, D.C.

ROSE, N. A., PARSONS, E. C. M. & FARINATO, R. 2009. The case against marine mammals in captivity. 4th ed.: The Humane Society of the United States and the World Society for the Protection of Animals.

ROSE, N. A., PARSONS, E. C. M. & FARINATO, R. 2009. SUMMARY OF The case against marine mammals in captivity. The Humane Society of the United States and the World Society for the Protection of Animals.

ROSE, N.A., SNUSZ, G. H., BROWN, D. M., PARSONS, E. C. M. 2017. Improving Captive Marine Mammal Welfare in the United States: Science-Based Recommendations for Improved Regulatory Requirements for Captive Marine Mammal Care.

ROZANOVA, E. I., ALEKSEEV, A. Y., ABRAMOV, A. V., RASSADKIN, Y. N. & SHESTOPALOV, A. M. 2007. Death of the killer whale Orsinus orca from bacterial pneumonia in 2003. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 33, 321-323.

SAMUELS, A. & GIFFORD, T. 1997. A quantitative assessment of dominance relations among bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science, 13, 70-99.

SAMUELS, A. & SPRADLIN, T. 1994. Quantitative behavioral study of bottlenose dolphins in swim-with-the-dolphins programs in the United States. National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Protected Resources.

SAMUELS, A. & SPRADLIN, T. 1995. Quantitative behavioral study of bottlenose dolphins in swim-with-the-dolphins programs in the United States. Marine Mammal Science, 11, 520-544.

SARRAZIN, F. & BARBAULT, R. 1996. Reintroduction: challenges and lessons for basic ecology. Tree, 11, 474-478.

SAWYER-STEFFAN, J. E., KIRBY, V. L. & GILMARTIN, W. G. 1983. Progesterone and estrogens in the pregnant and nonpregnant dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, and the effects of induced ovulation. Biology of Reproduction, 28, 897-901.

SEDDON, P. J., ARMSTRONG, D. P. & MALONEY, R. F. 2007. Developing the science of reintroduction biology. Conservation Biology, 21, 303-312.

SMALL, R. J. & DEMASTER, D. P. 1995. Acclimation to captivity: A quantitative estimate based on survival of bottlenose dolphins and california sea lions. Marine Mammal Science, 11, 510-519.

SMALL, R. J. & DEMASTER, D. P. 1995. Survival of five species of captive marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science, 11, 209-226.

SPENCER, M. P., GORNALL, T. A., III & POULTER, T. C. 1967. Respiratory and cardiac activity of killer whales. Journal of Applied Physiology, 22, 974-981.

LEGER, J., WU, G., ANDERSON, M., DALTON, L., NILSON, E. & WANG, D. 2011. West Nile Virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 1531-1533.

VAN ELK, C. E., VAN DE BILDT, M. W. G., DE JONG, A. A. W., OSTERHAUS, A. D. M. E. & KUIKEN, T. 2009. Genital herpesvirus in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Cultivation, epidemiology, and associated pathology. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 45, 895-906.

WALKER, L. A., CORNELL, L., DAHL, K. D., CZEKALA, M., DARGEN, C. M., JOSEPH, B., HSUEH, A. J. W. & LASLEY, B. L. 1988. Urinary concentrations of ovarian steroid hormone meabolites and bioactive folicle-stimulating hormone in killer whales (Orcinus orca) during ovarian cycles and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction, 39, 1013-1020.

WALLIS, A. P. L. 1973. The maintenance of satisfactory water conditions in dolphinaria. Aquatic Mammals, 1, 25-19.

WAPLES, K. A. & GALES, N. J. 2002. Evaluating and minimising social stress in the care of captive bottlenose dolpins (Tursiops aduncus). Zoo Biology, 21, 5-26.

WILLIAMS, V. 2001. Captive orcas.  “Dying to entertain you”.  The full story. WDCS, Brookfield House, 38 St Paul Street, Chippenham, Wiltshire, SN15 1LJ, United Kingdom: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS).

DOLPHINARIA A review of the keeping of whales and dolphins in captivity in the European Union and EC Directive 1999/22, relating to the keeping of wild animals in zoos.: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Born Free Foundation, ENDCAP.

ZAPPULLI, V., MAZZARIOL, S., CAVICCHIOLI, L., PETTERINO, C., BARGELLONI, L. & CASTAGNARO, M. 2005. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis and myositis in a captive common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) associated with Streptococcus agalactiae. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 17, 617-622.